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Barium Sulfate Oral Suspension

[17 September 2014]

Products Affected - Description

E-Z HD Barium Sulfate for Suspension, Bracco Diagnostics
98% w/w, 340 gram bottle (NDC 32909-0764-01)

E-Z-Paste, Barium Sulfate Esophageal Cream, Bracco Diagnostics
60% w/w, 454 gram tube (NDC 32909-0770-01)


Polibar ACB, Barium Sulfate Enema, Bracco Diagnostics
96% w/w, 397 gram bag (NDC 32909-0804-01)

Entero Vu, Barium Sulfate for Suspension, Bracco Diagnostics
24% w/v, 600 mL jug (NDC 32909-0145-06)
 
Liquid Polibar Barium Sulfate Suspension, Bracco Diagnostics
100% w/v, 1900 mL jug (NDC 32909-0164-02)
 
Liquid Polibar Plus, Barium Sulfate Suspension, Bracco Diagnostics
105% w/v, 1900 mL jug (NDC 32909-0168-02)


Liquid E-Z-Paque Barium Sulfate Suspension, Bracco Diagnostics
60% w/v, 1900 mL jug (NDC 32909-0186-01)

Entero H Barium Sulfate Suspension, Bracco Diagnostics
80% w/v, 1900 mL jug (NDC 32909-0147-01)
 
Readi-Cat 2, Barium Sulfate Suspension, Bracco Diagnostics
2.1% w/v, 450 mL bottle (NDC 32909-0723-01)

 
Tagitol V, Barium Sulfate Suspension, Bracco Diagnostics
40% w/v, three 20 mL bottles (NDC 32909-0814-53)
 
Varibar, Barium Sulfate Suspension, Bracco Diagnostics
Honey, 40% w/v, 250 mL bottle (NDC 32909-0122-07)

Varibar Pudding, Barium Sulfate Esophageal Paste, Bracco Diagnostics
40% w/v, 230 mL tube (NDC 32909-0125-22)

Reason for the Shortage

  • Bracco Diagnostics states the reason for the shortage is manufacturing delay, as well as increased demand. Bracco Diagnostics has provided a customer letter detailing the reason for the shortage and barium sulfate presentations affected.1 
  • Bracco discontinued multiple products in August 2013 in order to streamline their product portfolio. Table 1 summarizes the barium products that were discontinued. Bracco has provided an updated product portfolio detailing the product changes and the recommended alternate products.1

Available Products

Liquid E-Z-Paque, Barium Sulfate Suspension, Bracco Diagnostics
60% w/v, 355 mL bottle (NDC 32909-0186-02)
 
E-Z-Disk, Barium Sulfate Tablets, Bracco Diagnostics
700 mg tablet, 100 count, NDC 10361-0778-31


E-Z-Paque, Barium Sulfate for Suspension, Bracco Diagnostics
96% w/w, 176 gram bottle (NDC 32909-0750-03)
 
E-Z-Paque, Barium Sulfate for Suspension, Bracco Diagnostics
96% w/w, 1200 gram jug (NDC 32909-0750-01)
 
E-Z Dose Liquid Polibar Plus Enema, Barium Sulfate Suspension, Bracco Diagnostics
105% w/v, 650 mL (NDC 32909-0652-02)

Creamy Vanilla Readi-Cat 2, Barium Sulfate Suspension, Bracco Diagnostics
2.1% w/v, 450 mL bottle (NDC 32909-0755-03)

Berry Smoothie Readi-Cat 2, Barium Sulfate Suspension, Bracco Diagnostics
2.1% w/v, 450 mL bottle (NDC 32909-0715-03)

Banana Smoothie Readi-Cat 2, Barium Sulfate Suspension, Bracco Diagnostics
2.1% w/v, 450 mL bottle (NDC 32909-0725-03)

Mochaccino Readi-Cat 2, Barium Sulfate Suspension, Bracco Diagnostics
2.1% w/v, 450 mL bottle (NDC 32909-0775-03)

Varibar, Barium Sulfate Suspension, Bracco Diagnostics
Thin Liquid, 40% w/v, 148 gram (NDC 32909-0105-10)
Nectar, 40% w/v, 240 mL bottle (NDC 32909-0115-01)
Thin Honey, 40% w/v, 250 mL bottle (NDC 32909-0121-07)
VoLumen, Barium Sulfate Suspension, Bracco Diagnostics
0.1% w/v, 450 mL bottle, 24 count (NDC 32909-0945-03)
 
E-Z-Cat Dry, Barium Sulfate for Suspension, Bracco Diagnostics
2% w/w, 23 gram packets, 50 count (NDC 32909-0727-01)

Estimated Resupply Dates

Bracco Diagnostics has several barium sulfate presentations on back order and the company cannot estimate a release date. Check with your wholesaler for availability.1

Implications for Patient Care

  • Barium sulfate is an inert enteral contrast agent used for diagnostic imaging of the gastrointestinal tract.2-5 All barium sulfate products are unapproved drugs.6,7
  • Barium concentrations are expressed as percent by weight (%w/w) and percent weight-in volume (% w/v). Percent by weight is the number of grams of barium sulfate per 100 grams of final suspension. For barium powders, percent by weight is the proportion of total powder weight that is pure barium and the remainder is additives. For example, barium 100% w/w is pure barium with no additives. Percent weight-in volume is the number of grams of barium sulfate per 100 mL of final suspension.5
  • The density of barium can be estimated by dividing the percent w/v concentration by its percent w/w concentration.5
  • A single-contrast barium examination fills the lumen of the gut with a low-density barium preparation (eg, 40% w/w) and then x-ray films are taken. A double-contrast examination uses a high-density (eg, 85% w/w) barium to coat the gastrointestinal lumen and uses air or carbon dioxide gas to distend the surface of the bowel.5

Safety

  • Barium sulfate should not be used if there is potential for peritoneal leak, within one week of polypectomy or rectal biopsy, in infants with swallowing disorders, and in newborns with complete duodenal or jejunal obstruction with suspected small bowel or colon obstruction.8
  • Diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium (Gastrografin®) should not be used in patients with contrast dye or iodine allergy. Also, this is a hypertonic solution that can cause hypovolemia and electrolyte imbalances.9
  • Iohexol is a hypertonic solution that can result in hypovolemia.10

Alternative Agents & Management

  • When choosing an alternative enteral contrast agent, it is important to consider the type of diagnostic test performed, the area of the gastrointestinal tract to be examined, co-morbid conditions, and cost. Table 2 summarizes the types of radiographic studies used for imaging the gastrointestinal tract and describes the type of contrast agent used for each type of study.
  • Both parenteral (eg, intravenous) and enteral (eg, oral, rectal) contrast agents are used for gastrointestinal studies.4,11 Parenteral agents may be used enterally in certain situations (eg, iohexol).10 Dosing depends on type of diagnostic study and size of the patient. Table 3 compares select commercially available enteral contrast agents including potential alternatives to barium products.
Table 1. List of Discontinued Presentations From Bracco Diagnostics1
 

Discontinued Product Name

Discontinued Presentation

NDC number

Digibar 190 Barium Sulfate for Suspension

190% w/v, 232 gram bottle,

32909-0270-19

Maxibar, Barium sulfate Suspension

210% w/v, 120 mL bottle,

32909-0150-08

Ultra-R, Barium Sulfate Suspension

95% w/w, 170 gram bottle,

32909-0753-01

Entero Vu, Barium Sulfate for Suspension

13% w/v, 100 gram packets, 12 count,

32909-0754-01

Liquid Entero Vu, Barium Sulfate Suspension

13% w/v, 600 mL jug,

32909-0140-06

E-Z-Paque, Barium Sulfate for Suspension

96% w/w, 10 kg pail,

32909-0750-05

Polibar ACB, Barium Sulfate Enema

96% w/w, 454 gram bag,

32909-0804-02

Sensatrast Barium Sulfate

100%, 120 gram bottle

32909-0788-61

EZ-HD Barium Sulfate Powder for Suspension

98%, 25 lb pail

32909-0764-02

Esopho-Cat barium sulfate esophageal cream

3%, 30 gram jar

32909-0738-01

Readi-Cat 2 barium sulfate suspension

2.1%, 900 mL bottle

32909-0723-03

Readi-Cat 2 barium sulfate suspension

2.1%, 1900 mL bottle

32909-0723-02

Readi-Cat 2 barium sulfate suspension- Apple smoothie

2.1%, 450 mL bottle

32909-0735-03

Readi-Cat 2 barium sulfate suspension- Banana smoothie

2.1%, 250 mL bottle

32909-0725-07

Readi-Cat 2 barium sulfate suspension- Vanilla smoothie

2.1%, 250 mL bottle

32909-0755-07

Readi-Cat barium sulfate suspension

1.3%, 900 mL bottle

32909-0728-03

Readi-Cat barium sulfate suspension

1.3%, 450 mL bottle

32909-0728-01

Readi-Cat barium sulfate suspension

1.3%, 1900 mL bottle

32909-0728-02

E-Z-Cat barium sulfate suspension

4.9%, 225 mL

32909-0720-01

 
Table 2. Description of Contrast Studies12
 
 

Study

Part of gastrointestinal tract examined

Type of contrast agent used

Comments

Barium follow through

Small bowel

Barium administered orally.5An effervescent agent (eg, sodium bicarbonate) may also be administered for “double-contrast” effect.

Diatrizoate meglumine/ diatrizoate sodium can also be used in oral small bowel follow through studies.

Barium swallow

Esophagus, swallowing mechanism, peristalsis

Barium tablet, paste, or suspension (eg, Varibar®, E-Z-Disk®)

Barium sulfate 40% w/v suspension or paste is used for modified swallowing tests.

Contrast enema

Colon and rectum

Barium or diatrizoate meglumine/diatrizoate sodium enema

A double-contrast barium enema uses both air and barium.13

Enteroclysis

Small bowel

Controlled infusion of enteric contrast agent via nasojejunal tube (eg, Entero Vu®, Liquid Entero Vu® barium sulfate).

Double-contrast barium enteroclysis uses infusion of CO2 or airplus barium.14

Useful for diagnosis of small bowel obstruction, Crohn disease, small bowel neoplasm.

May require conscious sedation.

CT scan

Small bowel, appendix, colon, abdomen, pelvis

Oral contrast agent (Iopamidol, meglumine diatrizoate, dilute barium, or iohexol) with or without intravenous contrast agent15

Preferred for assessing diverticulitis 2

Stomach

Oral contrast agent (water, whole milk, low-attenuation barium) plus intravenous contrast.16,17

- - - -

CT enteroclysis

Small bowel

Nasojejunal administration of negative (water) or positive (barium or iodine based) contrast media. Intravenous contrast media also used.12,18

May require conscious sedation.

CT enterography

Small bowel

High volume (1500-2000 mL) neutral or low-density oral contrast agent (eg, water, VoLumen®, polyethylene glycol, milk) plus IV contrast agent.12,19,20

Relative contraindications include bowel obstruction, renal insufficiency, pregnancy, allergy to IV contrast.

MRI or magnetic resonance enterography

Abdomen, pelvic cavity, small bowel

Oral contrast (eg, water, VoLumen®, polyethylene glycol) plus intravenous gadolinium- based contrast agent (eg, gadodiamide)21-26

Radiation free procedure

 
Table 3. Dosing of Selected Enteral Contrast Agents According to Product Labeling
 

Drug

Dosage

How Supplied

Concentration

Comments

Oral

Rectal

Barium

E-Z-Disk3,27

Swallow one 700 mg tablet with 1-2 swallows of water

Not labeled

Tablet

700 mg

Tablet is ½ inch in diameter and will disintegrate within 30 minutes.

E-Z-HD28

Adults

65 mL to 135 mL

Not labeled

Suspension

98% w/w

Use immediately after reconstitution.

Liquid E-Z-Paque29

Adults

Single contrast fill stomach with small bowel follow through: 150 mL to 340 mL

Routine small bowel: 340 mL to 750 mL

Follow through small bowel after double contrast upper GI study: 340 mL to 750 mL

Not labeled

Suspension

60% w/v

Use undiluted for single contrast fill stomach with small bowel follow-through, routine small bowel, and follow through small bowel after double contrast upper GI study.

E-Z-Paque30

Adults

Upper GI: 150 mL to 340 mL

Small bowel: 340 mL to 750 mL

Not labeled

Powder for suspension

96% w/w

After reconstitution, use within 48 hours and refrigerate.

Liquid Polibar Plus

Liquid Polibar31,32

Adults

Double-contrast esophagus study: 60 mL to 300 mL undiluted suspension.

Single or double contrast stomach series: 150 mL to 340 mL diluted or undiluted, depending on study.

Small bowel series: 340 mL to 750 mL

Adults

Single contrast studies: 1000 mL to 2500 mL of diluted suspension. Dilute in 1:5 ratio.

Double contrast colon studies: 500 mL to 1500 mL of undiluted suspension.

Suspension

105% w/v

100% w/v

Volume and concentration used depends on gastrointestinal location being imaged, technique and equipment.

Readi-CAT 233

Adults

30 minute barium administration protocol for abdomen: Give 300 mL 30 minutes before CT scan and 150 mL immediately prior to scan.

90 minute barium administration protocol for abdomen: Give 450 mL 90 minutes before CT scan, give another 300 mL 30 minutes before scan, and 150 mL immediately prior to scan.

Adults

300 mL to 400 mL rectally.

Suspension

2.1% w/v

Shake well prior to use. Readi-CAT 2 is available in the following flavors: banana, vanilla, berry, and mochaccino.

E-Z-CAT Dry34

Adults

30 minute barium administration protocol for abdomen: Give 300 mL 30 minutes before CT scan and 150 mL immediately prior to scan.

90 minute barium administration protocol for abdomen: Give 450 mL 90 minutes before CT scan, given another 300 mL 30 minutes before scan, and 150 mL immediately prior to scan.

Not labeled

Powder for suspension

2% w/w

After reconstitution, use within 48 hours and refrigerate.

VoLumen®35

Adults

900 to 1350 mL orally given 20 to 30 minutes prior to procedure.

Not labeled

Suspension

0.1% w/v

Can increase dose to 1800 mL for enhanced marking, in patients with delayed transit time and for obese patients.


Drug

Dosage

How Supplied

Concentration

Comments

Oral

Rectal

Barium

E-Z-Disk3,27

Swallow one 700 mg tablet with 1-2 swallows of water

Not labeled

Tablet

700 mg

Tablet is ½ inch in diameter and will disintegrate within 30 minutes.

E-Z-HD28

Adults

65 mL to 135 mL

Not labeled

Suspension

98% w/w

Use immediately after reconstitution.

Liquid E-Z-Paque29

Adults

Single contrast fill stomach with small bowel follow through: 150 mL to 340 mL

Routine small bowel: 340 mL to 750 mL

Follow through small bowel after double contrast upper GI study: 340 mL to 750 mL

Not labeled

Suspension

60% w/v

Use undiluted for single contrast fill stomach with small bowel follow-through, routine small bowel, and follow through small bowel after double contrast upper GI study.

E-Z-Paque30

Adults

Upper GI: 150 mL to 340 mL

Small bowel: 340 mL to 750 mL

Not labeled

Powder for suspension

96% w/w

After reconstitution, use within 48 hours and refrigerate.

Liquid Polibar Plus

Liquid Polibar31,32

Adults

Double-contrast esophagus study: 60 mL to 300 mL undiluted suspension.

Single or double contrast stomach series: 150 mL to 340 mL diluted or undiluted, depending on study.

Small bowel series: 340 mL to 750 mL

Adults

Single contrast studies: 1000 mL to 2500 mL of diluted suspension. Dilute in 1:5 ratio.

Double contrast colon studies: 500 mL to 1500 mL of undiluted suspension.

Suspension

105% w/v

100% w/v

Volume and concentration used depends on gastrointestinal location being imaged, technique and equipment.

Readi-CAT 233

Adults

30 minute barium administration protocol for abdomen: Give 300 mL 30 minutes before CT scan and 150 mL immediately prior to scan.

90 minute barium administration protocol for abdomen: Give 450 mL 90 minutes before CT scan, give another 300 mL 30 minutes before scan, and 150 mL immediately prior to scan.

Adults

300 mL to 400 mL rectally.

Suspension

2.1% w/v

Shake well prior to use. Readi-CAT 2 is available in the following flavors: banana, vanilla, berry, and mochaccino.

E-Z-CAT Dry34

Adults

30 minute barium administration protocol for abdomen: Give 300 mL 30 minutes before CT scan and 150 mL immediately prior to scan.

90 minute barium administration protocol for abdomen: Give 450 mL 90 minutes before CT scan, given another 300 mL 30 minutes before scan, and 150 mL immediately prior to scan.

Not labeled

Powder for suspension

2% w/w

After reconstitution, use within 48 hours and refrigerate.

VoLumen®35

Adults

900 to 1350 mL orally given 20 to 30 minutes prior to procedure.

Not labeled

Suspension

0.1% w/v

Can increase dose to 1800 mL for enhanced marking, in patients with delayed transit time and for obese patients.


Drug

Dosage

How Supplied

Concentration

Comments

Oral

Rectal

Water soluble iodinated contrast media

Diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium (Gastrografin®)9

Adults

30 to 90 mL

Pediatric Patients

Infant to children < 5 years: 30 mL

Children 5 to 10 years: 60 mL

For CT use:

Adults

240 mL of diluted solution 15 to 30 minutes prior to procedure. To make a dilute solution mix 25 mL Gastrografin with one liter tap water.

Adults

240 mL in 1000 mL tap water.

Pediatric patients

< 5 years of age: 1:5 dilution in tap water

>5 years of age: 90 mL in 500 mL tap water.

Solution

37% organically bound iodine

For pediatric patients weighing 10 kg or less and debilitated children, dilute 1 part Gastrografin in 3 parts water.

Nonionic iodine based contrast agents

Iohexol (Omnipaque®)10

Adults

Undiluted Omnipaque 350: 50 to 100 mL

Diluted Omnipaque

Concentration:

6 to 9 mg Iodine/mL:

500 mL to 1000 mL

Note: smaller volumes are needed as concentration is increased.

Pediatric Patients

Undiluted Omnipaque

< 3 months of age: 5 to 30 mL

3 months to 3 years: up to 60 mL

4 to 10 years: up to 80 mL

> 10 years: up to 100 mL

Diluted Omnipaque

Concentration:

9 to 21 mg Iodine/mL: 180 mL to 750 mL

Note: smaller volumes are needed as concentration is increased.

Can be given rectally with larger volumes used. The product labeling does not provide specific dosages.

Solution

30.2% to 75.5%

Give the oral dose 20 to 40 minutes prior to intravenous dose.

For pediatric patients, the total iodine dose should not exceed 5 gram iodine for patients under 3 years of age and 10 grams iodine for patients 3 to 18 years of age.

Iohexol can be mixed with water, juice, milk or carbonated beverage.10,36

Omnipaque 350 is labeled for pass thru examination in adults.

Omnipaque 300 and Omnipaque 240 are labeled for pass thru examination in children

Related Shortages

References

  1. Bracco Diagnostics (personal communications). August 16, September 24 and 26, October 8, and December 10, 2012; January 7, February 2, March 4, April 11, June 13, July 25, Aug 5, 12, and 29, September 30, October 16, November 4, and December 3, 2013; January 7, February 3 and 19, March 10 and 17, April 1, May 14, July 7 and 21, and September 17, 2014.
  2. Chen MYM, Pope TL, Ott DJ. Basic radiology : a Lange medical book. 2nd ed. New York: Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill, Medical Pub. Div.; 2004.
  3. Wickersham RM, Novak KK, managing eds., eds. Drug Facts and Comparisons (eFacts). Discontinued list. St. Louis, MO: Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.; 2012.
  4. Contrast agents. In: Weissleder R, Wittenberg J, Harisinghani MG, Chen JW, eds. Primer of Diagnostic Imaging. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier; 2007:975-987.
  5. Swanson DP, Chilton HM, Thrall JH. Pharmaceuticals in medical imaging. New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing 1990.
  6. Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. Drugs @ FDA. 2012; Food and Drug Administration, Department of Health and Human Services. Updated 2012. Accessed October 3, 2012..
  7. Electronic Orange Book - Approved products with therapeutic equivalence evaluations. Available online, Rockville, MD: U.S Department of Health and Human Services; 2012.
  8. Lexi-Drugs Online. Lexi-Comp, Inc.; 2012.
  9. Bracco Diagnostics Inc. Gastrografin (Diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium) solution [product information]. Princeton, NJ: Bracco Diagnotics Inc.; 2007.
  10. GE Healthcare. Omnipaque (iohexol injection) [product information]. Princeton, NJ: GE Healthcare; February 2009.
  11. Lexi-Drugs Online. Lexi-Comp, Inc.; 2011. Accessed May 27, 2011.
  12. Jarman BT. Small bowel imaging. The Surgical clinics of North America. Feb 2011;91(1):109-125.
  13. Rubesin SE, Maglinte DD. Double-contrast barium enema technique. Radiologic clinics of North America. Mar 2003;41(2):365-376.
  14. Maglinte DD, Kohli MD, Romano S, Lappas JC. Air (CO2) double-contrast barium enteroclysis. Radiology. Sep 2009;252(3):633-641.
  15. McNamara MM, Lockhart ME, Fineberg NS, Berland LL. Oral contrast media for body CT: Comparison of diatrizoate sodium and iohexol for patient acceptance and bowel opacification. AJR. American journal of roentgenology. Nov 2010;195(5):1137-1141.
  16. Horton KM, Fishman EK. Current role of CT in imaging of the stomach. Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc. Jan-Feb 2003;23(1):75-87.
  17. Koo CW, Shah-Patel LR, Baer JW, Frager DH. Cost-effectiveness and patient tolerance of low-attenuation oral contrast material: milk versus VoLumen. AJR. American journal of roentgenology. May 2008;190(5):1307-1313.
  18. Maglinte DD, Sandrasegaran K, Lappas JC, Chiorean M. CT Enteroclysis. Radiology. Dec 2007;245(3):661-671.
  19. Fletcher JG. CT enterography technique: theme and variations. Abdominal imaging. May-Jun 2009;34(3):283-288.
  20. Ilangovan R, Burling D, George A, Gupta A, Marshall M, Taylor SA. CT enterography: review of technique and practical tips. The British journal of radiology. Jul 2012;85(1015):876-886.
  21. Feuerbach S. MRI enterography: the future of small bowel diagnostics? Dig Dis. 2010;28(3):433-438.
  22. Fidler J. MR imaging of the small bowel. Radiologic clinics of North America. Mar 2007;45(2):317-331.
  23. Grand DJ, Harris A, Loftus EV, Jr. Imaging for luminal disease and complications: CT enterography, MR enterography, small-bowel follow-through, and ultrasound. Gastroenterology clinics of North America. Jun 2012;41(2):497-512.
  24. Schreyer AG, Stroszczynski C. Radiological imaging of the small bowel. Dig Dis. 2011;29 Suppl 1:22-26.
  25. Masselli G, Gualdi G. MR imaging of the small bowel. Radiology. Aug 2012;264(2):333-348.
  26. Lin MF, Narra V. Developing role of magnetic resonance imaging in Crohn's disease. Current opinion in gastroenterology. Mar 2008;24(2):135-140.
  27. Bracco Diagnostics Inc. E-Z-Disk (barium sulfate) 700 mg [product information]. Princeton, NJ: Bracco Diagnotics Inc.; 2008.
  28. Bracco Diagnostics Inc. E-Z-HD (barium sulfate) 98% w/w suspension [product information]. Princeton, NJ: Bracco Diagnotics Inc.; 2011.
  29. Bracco Diagnostics Inc. Digibar 190 (barium sulfate) 190% w/w suspension [product information]. Princeton, NJ: Bracco Diagnotics Inc.; 2011.
  30. Bracco Diagnostics Inc. Maxibar (barium sulfate) 210% w/v, 80% w/w suspension [product information]. Princeton, NJ: Bracco Diagnotics Inc.; 2006.
  31. Bracco Diagnostics Inc. Liquid E-Z-Paque (barium sulfate) 60% w/v, 41% w/w suspension [product information]. Princeton, NJ: Bracco Diagnotics Inc.; 2006.
  32. Bracco Diagnostics Inc. Ultra-R (barium sulfate) 95% w/w suspension [product information]. Princeton, NJ: Bracco Diagnotics Inc.; 2011.
  33. Bracco Diagnostics Inc. E-Z-Paque (barium sulfate) 96% w/w suspension [product information]. Princeton, NJ: Bracco Diagnotics Inc.; 2006.
  34. Bracco Diagnostics Inc. Liquid Polibar (barium sulfate) 100% w/v, 58% w/w suspension [product information]. Princeton, NJ: Bracco Diagnotics Inc.; 2006.
  35. Bracco Diagnostics Inc. Liquid Polibar Plus (barium sulfate) 105% w/v, 58% w/w suspension [product information]. Princeton, NJ: Bracco Diagnotics Inc.; 2006.
  36. Bracco Diagnostics Inc. Readi-Cat 2 (barium sulfate) 2.1% w/v 2.0% w/w suspension [product information]. Princeton, NJ: Bracco Diagnotics Inc.; 2011.
  37. Bracco Diagnostics Inc. E-Z-Cat Dry (barium sulfate) 2% w/w suspension [product information]. Princeton, NJ: Bracco Diagnotics Inc.; 2009.
  38. Bracco Diagnostics Inc. Volumen (barium sulfate) 0.1% w/w suspension [product information]. Princeton, NJ: Bracco Diagnotics Inc.; 2006.
  39. Horton KM, Fishman EK, Gayler B. The use of iohexol as oral contrast for computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis. Journal of computer assisted tomography. Mar-Apr 2008;32(2):207-209.

Updated

Updated September 17, 2014 by Leslie Jensen, PharmD, Drug Information Specialist. Created October 10, 2012, by Jane Chandramouli, PharmD, Drug Information Specialist. Copyright 2014, Drug Information Service, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT.

Disclaimer

This information is provided through the support of Novation to ASHP solely as a service to its members, which shall not use this information for their further commercial use. The content was prepared by the Drug Information Center of University of Utah. Novation, ASHP, and the University of Utah make no representations or warranties, express or implied, including, but not limited to, any implied warranty of merchantability and/or fitness for a particular purpose, which respect to such information, and specifically disclaim all such warranties. Users of this information are advised that decisions regarding the use of drugs and drug therapies are complex medical decisions and that in using this information, each user must exercise his or her own independent professional judgment. Neither Novation, ASHP nor the University of Utah assumes any liability for persons administering or receiving drugs or other medical care in reliance upon this information, or otherwise in connection with this bulletin. Neither Novation, ASHP nor University of Utah endorses or recommends the use of any drug.

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