Text of Sen. Johnson's Statement in Introducing Medicare Pharmacist Services Act
Mr. President, I am pleased to be able to introduce legislation, known as the Medicare Pharmacist Services Coverage Act, that will provide for important patient safety and health care quality improvements in the Medicare program. This legislation will reform Medicare by recognizing qualified pharmacists as health care providers within the Medicare program and make available to beneficiaries important drug therapy management services that these valuable health professionals can and do provide. These services, which are coordinated in direct collaboration with physicians and other health care professionals as authorized by State law, help patients make the best possible use of their medications.
The members of this body know very well the vital role that today's powerful and effective medications play in the maintenance of health and well-being of our nation's seniors. The substantial and important discussion now underway on how best to craft and implement a prescription drug benefit for Medicare beneficiaries is an explicit recognition of this vital role. But access to the medications, even at the most affordable prices possible, is only one part of the equation in achieving the kinds of health care outcomes that patients and their health care providers desire. That is where today's pharmacists play a pivotal role.
But members of this body may not be as aware of the tremendous changes in pharmacy practice and education that have taken place in the past decade that have resulted in an expansion of pharmacists' capabilities and responsibilities. Fortunately for my office Dr. Brian Kaatz, a clinical pharmacist and faculty member of the College of Pharmacy at South Dakota State University was able to spend 6 months with us here in Washington last year as we studied and evaluated the many policy issues and concerns related to a Medicare prescription drug benefit. In the course of that time it became clear to me and to members of my staff that pharmacists are critical in assuring safer and more effective medication use by our nation's seniors.
In addition to the important and continuing responsibility for assuring accurate, safe medication dispensing, compounding, and counseling, pharmacists now provide a much more comprehensive range of clinical, consultative, and educational services. Thirty States, the Veterans Administration, and the Indian Health Service, among others, all recognize the value of collaborative drug therapy management services as a way to provide optimal patient care using the specialized education and training of pharmacists. Unfortunately, Medicare does not.
Indeed, payment for prescription drugs in almost all types of health plans and programs focuses on payment for the product and the associated costs of its distribution to patients. The logical financial incentive therefore is to dispense more medications, not fewer. Payment to the pharmacist for time spent in reducing the number of medications the patient is taking or enhancing the patient's ability to understand and more properly use the medications they do need is provided only by some forward-thinking payers and programs. Unfortunately, Medicare is not among them.
Access to pharmacists' collaborative drug therapy management services is particularly important right now, while many Medicare beneficiaries are struggling to pay substantial out-of-pocket costs for their prescription medications. On average, persons aged 65 and older currently take 5 or more medications each day. These medications are often prescribed by several different physicians for concurrent chronic and acute conditions. Recently published research has indicated that drug-related problems cost the U.S. health care system as much as $177 billion each year, an amount equal to the ten-year cost projections for some of the more modest Medicare prescription drug coverage proposals now being discussed. A substantial portion of this expense is preventable through collaborative patient care services provided by pharmacists working with patients and their physicians.
With careful examination of a patient's total drug regimen, pharmacists can eliminate unnecessary or counterproductive treatments. For example, pharmacists working closely with the health care team can identify or prevent duplicate medications, drugs that cancel each other out, or combinations that can damage hearts or kidneys. Pharmacists may also find that a newer multi-action drug may be exchanged for two older drugs or a slightly more expensive drug may be substituted for a less expensive alternative that causes side effects and results in the patient either taking additional medication or stopping their medication with the result that their medical condition worsens.
The overuse of medications is particularly common in the elderly, who tend to have more chronic conditions that call for drug treatment. In addition, physiological changes that occur naturally in the aging process diminish the body's ability to process medications, increasing the likelihood of medication-related complications.
The pharmacist's specialized training in drug therapy management has been demonstrated repeatedly to improve the quality of care patients receive and to control health care costs associated with medication complications. As a precursor to a prescription drug benefit, it makes sense to take this proven initial step to improve the medication use process. This will help Medicare beneficiaries immediately by ensuring that each precious dollar spent out-of-pocket is spent wisely on a streamlined and effective drug therapy regimen. This is an important benefit that we can deliver now while Congress works to address the more difficult economic and political issues impacting a prescription drug benefit.
In addition, the quality improvement and cost-control resulting from this benefit establishes a critical infrastructure element for whatever Medicare prescription drug benefit is ultimately put in place. By supporting pharmacists who are working to improve the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of medication regimens, as well as reducing preventable medication-related complications and adverse drug events that result in unnecessary health care expenditures, we can enhance the prospects of achieving an affordable Medicare drug benefit that will bring real value to beneficiaries and taxpayers alike.
Recognition of qualified pharmacists as providers within the Medicare program is the logical and very affordable first step in establishing the essential infrastructure of a Medicare prescription drug benefit. As the Institute of Medicine report "To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System" stated: "Because of the immense variety and complexity of medications now available, it is impossible for nurses and doctors to keep up with all of the information required for safe medication use. The pharmacist has become an essential resource ..... and thus access to his or her expertise must be possible at all times.'' This legislation will empower Medicare to catch up on this important health care quality issue. Pharmacists' collaborative drug therapy management services can and will make a real difference in the lives of Medicare beneficiaries. I encourage my colleagues on both sides of the aisle to give this proposal their serious consideration.